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Appearance: White crystalline powder
Melting Point: 210 - 212 °C
Solubility: 2500 g/L (20 °C)
Alpha:-31 º (c=10, H2O)
Storage Temperature: 2-8°C
Refractive index: -32 ° (C=1, H2O)
Export Markets: Global
L-carnitine occurrs mainly in red meat (beef, lamb), in small amounts also in white meat (chicken, turkey).Only very small quantities are found in vegetarian foods. Vegetarians and Vegans thus usually have very low L-carnitine levels.It is most sensible as a food supplement for people, who are mentally and physically very active, on a diet or vegetarians.
It is transparent or white crystalline powder, m.p. 200 ℃ (decomposition). It is easily soluble in water, alkaline, methanol and ethanol but nearly insoluble in acetone and acetate and insoluble in chloroform. It is hygroscopicity. Rabbit: oral LD50: 2272-2444mg/kg, ADI 20mg / kg.
Application and prospect of functional food
L-carnitine, as a new kind of nutritional supplements, especially as the additive of baby formula, athlete food, and food for losing weight and bodybuilding, has been currently widely applied in functional foods. The commercialized L-carnitine is mainly its hydrochloric acid salt, tartaric acid salt and citric acid magnesium salts.
1. Application in infant formula food
L-carnitine plays an important role in the baby’s metabolism process of taking fat as a source of energy. Owing to that the weak ability of baby of de no biosynthesis of L-carnitine can’t meet the demands of its normal metabolism, it must be ingested exogenous L-carnitine base in order to ensure the best in body fat oxidation state and provide enough energy to maintain normal body temperature of the baby. In addition, L-carnitine also has certain effects on boosting infant growth and development and improving metabolic balance. So it is necessary to strengthen the L-carnitine in infant food, especially in soy-based infant formula. Because of the low carnitine content in soy, the limit of L-carnitine content in infant formula food is 70 ~ 90mg/kg in China. Now China has carnitine fortified infant formula milk that has entered into market.
2. Application of athletes Food
Decombaz J. et al have reported that after fierce exercise, the free carnitine content in human muscle tissue will decrease by 20% and the supplemental of carnitine can alleviate the fatigue of the body because L-carnitine can promote fat oxidation of the body as well as provide sufficient energy which is good for the sports endurance as well as explosiveness improvement. If L-carnitine is used in combination with octacosanol, then the effect of improving the body strength would be multiplied, manifested as the systemic muscles relaxation, improved explosive power and endurance, and increased basal metabolic rate as well as improved nutritional status of the myocardium. Commonly used method is to add L-carnitine to athletes’ beverage.
3. Application in the food for losing weight
In the early 70s, there had been patent reported of using DL- carnitine for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Subsequently, because of the negative effect, DL-carnitine was replaced by L-carnitine. Practice has proved that L-carnitine fortified food has good effect on treating the fat metabolism disorder caused by carnitine deficiency in vivo. It can prevent obesity and fatty liver due to the accumulation of lipids in the liver and muscle fibers. Kuwata thought that obesity patients due to lack of exercise have large amount of accumulated fat and have low carnitine biosynthesis capability. Through ingestion of L-carnitine, they can effectively convert excess body fat into energy to be released, thus playing a role in prevention and treatment of obesity. Thereby the lipid-lowering food with L-carnitine as the main component becomes very popular in the European marke
1. L-carnitine is a dietary supplement newly approved by China. It is mainly used to strengthen the soy-based baby food and promote the absorption and utilization of fat. D- and DL-type have no nutritional value. China states: it can be used in biscuits, drinking fluids and milk drinks with usage amount of 600 ~ 3000mg / kg; for solid drink, drinking liquid and capsules, the amount should be 250 ~ 600mg/kg; the amount of milk powder is 300 ~ 400mg / kg; the amount of use in infant formula is 70 ~ 90mg/kg (in terms of L- carnitine, 1g equivalent 0.68g L- carnitine tartrate).
2. Used in pharmaceutical, nutrient health food, functional beverages, and feed additives.
3. Used as appetite enhancers.
4. Antimethemoglobinemic, cyanide antidote
5. Essential cofactor of fatty acid metabolism; required for the transport of fatty acids through the inner mitochondrial membrane. Synthetized primarily in the liver and kidney; highest concentrations f ound in heart and skeletal muscle. Dietary sources include red meat, dairy products, beans, avocado.
6. Carniking(R) is a product for premix- and feed industry. It is particularly recommended for the enrichment of compound feed.
7. L-Carnitine is a natural, vitamin-like nutrient wich plays an important role inhuman metabolism. It is essential in the utilization of fatty acids and in transporting metabolic energy.
8. Natrulon(R) RC-100 is 100% L-Carnitine. This white crystalline powder, highly hygroscopic and amino acid like material brings not only the exfoliation but also, an additional benefit of a high level of moisturization capability.
9. Natrulon(R) RC-50DG is a 50% solution of L-Carnitine in decaglycerol/water. Natrulon(R) RC-50DG to provide a truly multi-functional product: an exfoliating product with excellent moisturization capability.
1. Extraction L-carnitine is naturally presented in meat and dairy so they can be extracted directly from L- carnitine containing beef and cow's milk. Reported in the literature, 0.6 g crystallize carnitine can be extracted from 450g beef extract; 100 g of 2% L carnitine-containing lactose powder can be extracted from 56kg cow milk. However, the cost of extraction method is high which is economically not reasonable.
2. Microbial fermentation Research shows that there are also many kinds of microorganisms containing L- carnitine. Use yeast, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus and other microorganisms for submerged culture or solid state fermentation can accumulate L- carnitine. But because the screening work of strains is very complicated, the current fermentation level is relatively low. It was reported using 2% DL- carnitine as the raw material, after 44 h of fermentation at 25, yields a 0.4% accumulated L- carnitine.
3. Synthesis Since 1953, there have been foreign patents about DL- carnitine synthesis report. Industrial production had emerged since 1960s. In 1982, there were also domestic production and application as stomach drugs in China. Starting from DL- carnitine, use camphor acid, N- acetyl -D-ethylbenzene or glutamic acid -L - (+) tartaric acid as resolving agent, generate L-carnitine through chemically split. But the racemization of carnitine is very difficult and can’t be recycled. The industrial production still demands new breakthrough.
4. Enzymatic conversion This is the most studied and most promising method. We can first apply chemically synthesized DL-carnitine for acetylation into amide or nitrile which then subject to selective hydrolysis resolution using enzymes derived from microorganisms. For example, Zhongshan Qing et al have used lactamase derived from Pseudomonas microorganisms for selective hydrolysis DL-carnitine amide or carnitine nitrile and obtain L-carnitine with optical purity being over 99%. In addition, we can also apply enzymatic conversion using β- dehydrogenation carnitine, enzymatic hydrolysis of trans-crotonobetaine and enzymatic hydroxylation of γ- butyl betaine for preparing L- carnitine. Currently, only Switzerland, Italy, and Japan have applied this method. Enzymatic conversion is also being studied in Jiangsu Institute of microbes.
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