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Coluracetam (BCI-540) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family.Coluracetam (formerly known as MKC-231) was initially developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation for Alzheimer's disease.
Coluracetam enhances high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) which is the rate-limiting step of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis, and is the only known choline uptake enhancer to currently exist. Studies have shown
Coluracetam to improve learning impairment on a single oral dose given to rats which have been exposed to cholinergic neurotoxins. Subsequent studies have shown that it may induce long-lasting procognitive effects by changing the choline transporter regulation system.
Memory and Learning
Coluracetam is shown to improve cognitive function and memory in rats, and in theory, the same results are expected in human beings. A study conducted by BrainCells Inc, showed a memory improvement in rats who were given substance AF64A (a neuron-specific neurotoxin) for 8 days along with Coluracetam in 3mg doses. These rats were put through the standardized Morris Water Maze to mark their ability to get through it, and even up to 72 hours after the last 8mg dose, they were still able to. Another key finding of this study was that the results were still apparent 3 days after the last dose, even though the serum concentration of Coluracetam was negligible.
Depression and Anxiety
BrainCells Inc, found that a dosage of 240mg (split into three daily doses of 80mg) was useful in treating major depression co-morbid with GAD (generalized anxiety disorder). However, the differences were most pronounced in those who didn't find relief in using standard antidepressants. After one dose, there were no noticeable differences, but after 2 doses at 80mg, 36% had improved scores during a depression assessment test.
Coluracetam has been associated with optic benefits such as enhanced color vision, recognition and vividness. Although there isn't any conclusive evidence to support the mechanisms behind this benefit, experts believe that Coluracetam works in the part of the brain that runs visual processes.
Since the study subjects were rats, there aren't any recommended human dosages, but there is a general guideline for conversion.
In rats, the dosage ranged between 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg per day. By using allometric scaling, the dose becomes 2.9 mg/kg in humans, so the average dose should not exceed 203.5 mg daily for someone in a typical weight class.
There isn't information to indicate toxicity of Coluracetam, although doses given at the above increments showed no negative side effects. If you haven't used a nootropic before, you may develop headache after use, which is a common in first time users. By stacking the Coluracetam with Choline, you'll reduce this risk.
Pikamilone sodium salt
2-Dimethylaminoethanol (+)-bitartrate salt/DMAE/ L-Bitartrate
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1. Legal status in the United States
Adrafinil is easily available from supplement shops in the USA while Modafinil requires a prescription. That is to say, adrafinil, unlike Modafinil, is not regulated in the United States of America and may privately be purchased without the need of a doctor prescription.
2. Side effects comparison
The side effects of Modafinil are similar to those listed for Adrafinil. Here we discover that Modafinil is far safer than Adrafinil for in a long period. The explanation for this is simple that Modafinil is not metabolized in the liver in the same way that Adrafinil is. Actually, when Adrafinil reaches your liver, the enzymes present actually convert this drug into Modafinil. It is this conversion process which puts stress on the organ and may lead to hepatoxicity. Because Modafinil does not get converted in the same manner, it does not come with the same risk of side effects. Consequently, Modafinil may be safer than Adrafinil in the long term.
3. Potency and speed
Adrafinil is first metabolized into modafinil in the liver. However, the metabolite takes around thirty minutes to one hour to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream when taken orally before eating anything. Because of the additional processing, Adrafinil takes longer time to take effect than Modafinil.
Aniracetam is a Nootropic supplement which was developed in the 1970 by the Hoffman-La Roche (Belgium) company. This supplement is also part of a class known as Racetams, which are particularly noted for their ability to help increase and improve a number of cognitive processes. Aniracetam also exhibits anxiolytic properties and enhances mood alongside memory and focus. This supplement has been well-studied for a number of years and is known to be generally very well-tolerated with minor side effects and a very low level of toxicity. However, before embarking on a supplementation program with Aniracetam powder it can be helpful to understand what the benefits are, how this supplement actually works, potential stacks, side effects, etc.
The main benefits of Aniracetam are related to improved mental performance. This includes an increase
in memory and possibly even enhanced learning capacity. This may actually occur differently in each